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## Linear Least Squares Problems

The linear least squares (LLS) problem  is:

where A is an m-by-n matrix, b is a given m element vector and x is the n element solution vector.

In the most usual case, and . In this case the solution to problem (3.1) is unique. The problem is also referred to as finding a least squares solution to an overdetermined  system of linear equations.

When m < n and , there are an infinite number of solutions x that exactly satisfy b-Ax=0. In this case it is often useful to find the unique solution x that minimizes , and the problem is referred to as finding a minimum norm solution  to an underdetermined  system of linear equations.

The driver routine PxGELS  solves problem (3.1) on the assumption that -- in other words, A has full rank -- finding a least squares solution of an overdetermined   system when m > n, and a minimum norm solution of an underdetermined  system when m < n. PxGELS     uses a QR or LQ factorization   of A and also allows A to be replaced by in the statement of the problem (or by if A is complex).

In the general case when we may have -- in other words, A may be rank-deficient  -- we seek the minimum norm least squares solution  x that minimizes both and .

The LLS  driver routines are listed in table 3.3.

All routines allow several right-hand-side vectors b and corresponding solutions x to be handled in a single call, storing these vectors as columns of matrices B and X, respectively. Note, however, that equation 3.1 is solved for each right-hand-side vector independently; this is not the same as finding a matrix X that minimizes .

Table 3.3: Driver routines for linear least squares problems

Next: Standard Eigenvalue and Singular Up: Driver Routines Previous: Linear Equations

Susan Blackford
Tue May 13 09:21:01 EDT 1997