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Parallel computing using a system such as PVM may be approached from three fundamental viewpoints, based on the organization of the computing tasks. Within each, different workload allocation strategies are possible and will be discussed later in this chapter. The first and most common model for PVM applications can be termed ``crowd'' computing : a collection of closely related processes, typically executing the same code, perform computations on different portions of the workload, usually involving the periodic exchange of intermediate results. This paradigm can be further subdivided into two categories:
The second model supported by PVM is termed a ``tree'' computation . In this scenario, processes are spawned (usually dynamically as the computation progresses) in a tree-like manner, thereby establishing a tree-like, parent-child relationship (as opposed to crowd computations where a star-like relationship exists). This paradigm, although less commonly used, is an extremely natural fit to applications where the total workload is not known a priori, for example, in branch-and-bound algorithms, alpha-beta search, and recursive ``divide-and-conquer'' algorithms.
The third model, which we term ``hybrid,'' can be thought of as a combination of the tree model and crowd model. Essentially, this paradigm possesses an arbitrary spawning structure: that is, at any point during application execution, the process relationship structure may resemble an arbitrary and changing graph.
We note that these three classifications are made on the basis of process relationships, though they frequently also correspond to communication topologies. Nevertheless, in all three, it is possible for any process to interact and synchronize with any other. Further, as may be expected, the choice of model is application dependent and should be selected to best match the natural structure of the parallelized program.