LAPACK 3.11.0
LAPACK: Linear Algebra PACKage

subroutine csysvxx  (  character  FACT, 
character  UPLO,  
integer  N,  
integer  NRHS,  
complex, dimension( lda, * )  A,  
integer  LDA,  
complex, dimension( ldaf, * )  AF,  
integer  LDAF,  
integer, dimension( * )  IPIV,  
character  EQUED,  
real, dimension( * )  S,  
complex, dimension( ldb, * )  B,  
integer  LDB,  
complex, dimension( ldx, * )  X,  
integer  LDX,  
real  RCOND,  
real  RPVGRW,  
real, dimension( * )  BERR,  
integer  N_ERR_BNDS,  
real, dimension( nrhs, * )  ERR_BNDS_NORM,  
real, dimension( nrhs, * )  ERR_BNDS_COMP,  
integer  NPARAMS,  
real, dimension( * )  PARAMS,  
complex, dimension( * )  WORK,  
real, dimension( * )  RWORK,  
integer  INFO  
) 
CSYSVXX computes the solution to system of linear equations A * X = B for SY matrices
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CSYSVXX uses the diagonal pivoting factorization to compute the solution to a complex system of linear equations A * X = B, where A is an NbyN symmetric matrix and X and B are NbyNRHS matrices. If requested, both normwise and maximum componentwise error bounds are returned. CSYSVXX will return a solution with a tiny guaranteed error (O(eps) where eps is the working machine precision) unless the matrix is very illconditioned, in which case a warning is returned. Relevant condition numbers also are calculated and returned. CSYSVXX accepts userprovided factorizations and equilibration factors; see the definitions of the FACT and EQUED options. Solving with refinement and using a factorization from a previous CSYSVXX call will also produce a solution with either O(eps) errors or warnings, but we cannot make that claim for general userprovided factorizations and equilibration factors if they differ from what CSYSVXX would itself produce.
The following steps are performed: 1. If FACT = 'E', real scaling factors are computed to equilibrate the system: diag(S)*A*diag(S) *inv(diag(S))*X = diag(S)*B Whether or not the system will be equilibrated depends on the scaling of the matrix A, but if equilibration is used, A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S) and B by diag(S)*B. 2. If FACT = 'N' or 'E', the LU decomposition is used to factor the matrix A (after equilibration if FACT = 'E') as A = U * D * U**T, if UPLO = 'U', or A = L * D * L**T, if UPLO = 'L', where U (or L) is a product of permutation and unit upper (lower) triangular matrices, and D is symmetric and block diagonal with 1by1 and 2by2 diagonal blocks. 3. If some D(i,i)=0, so that D is exactly singular, then the routine returns with INFO = i. Otherwise, the factored form of A is used to estimate the condition number of the matrix A (see argument RCOND). If the reciprocal of the condition number is less than machine precision, the routine still goes on to solve for X and compute error bounds as described below. 4. The system of equations is solved for X using the factored form of A. 5. By default (unless PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I) is set to zero), the routine will use iterative refinement to try to get a small error and error bounds. Refinement calculates the residual to at least twice the working precision. 6. If equilibration was used, the matrix X is premultiplied by diag(R) so that it solves the original system before equilibration.
Some optional parameters are bundled in the PARAMS array. These settings determine how refinement is performed, but often the defaults are acceptable. If the defaults are acceptable, users can pass NPARAMS = 0 which prevents the source code from accessing the PARAMS argument.
[in]  FACT  FACT is CHARACTER*1 Specifies whether or not the factored form of the matrix A is supplied on entry, and if not, whether the matrix A should be equilibrated before it is factored. = 'F': On entry, AF and IPIV contain the factored form of A. If EQUED is not 'N', the matrix A has been equilibrated with scaling factors given by S. A, AF, and IPIV are not modified. = 'N': The matrix A will be copied to AF and factored. = 'E': The matrix A will be equilibrated if necessary, then copied to AF and factored. 
[in]  UPLO  UPLO is CHARACTER*1 = 'U': Upper triangle of A is stored; = 'L': Lower triangle of A is stored. 
[in]  N  N is INTEGER The number of linear equations, i.e., the order of the matrix A. N >= 0. 
[in]  NRHS  NRHS is INTEGER The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0. 
[in,out]  A  A is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDA,N) The symmetric matrix A. If UPLO = 'U', the leading NbyN upper triangular part of A contains the upper triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly lower triangular part of A is not referenced. If UPLO = 'L', the leading NbyN lower triangular part of A contains the lower triangular part of the matrix A, and the strictly upper triangular part of A is not referenced. On exit, if FACT = 'E' and EQUED = 'Y', A is overwritten by diag(S)*A*diag(S). 
[in]  LDA  LDA is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N). 
[in,out]  AF  AF is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDAF,N) If FACT = 'F', then AF is an input argument and on entry contains the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to obtain the factor U or L from the factorization A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T as computed by CSYTRF. If FACT = 'N', then AF is an output argument and on exit returns the block diagonal matrix D and the multipliers used to obtain the factor U or L from the factorization A = U*D*U**T or A = L*D*L**T. 
[in]  LDAF  LDAF is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array AF. LDAF >= max(1,N). 
[in,out]  IPIV  IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N) If FACT = 'F', then IPIV is an input argument and on entry contains details of the interchanges and the block structure of D, as determined by CSYTRF. If IPIV(k) > 0, then rows and columns k and IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k,k) is a 1by1 diagonal block. If UPLO = 'U' and IPIV(k) = IPIV(k1) < 0, then rows and columns k1 and IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k1:k,k1:k) is a 2by2 diagonal block. If UPLO = 'L' and IPIV(k) = IPIV(k+1) < 0, then rows and columns k+1 and IPIV(k) were interchanged and D(k:k+1,k:k+1) is a 2by2 diagonal block. If FACT = 'N', then IPIV is an output argument and on exit contains details of the interchanges and the block structure of D, as determined by CSYTRF. 
[in,out]  EQUED  EQUED is CHARACTER*1 Specifies the form of equilibration that was done. = 'N': No equilibration (always true if FACT = 'N'). = 'Y': Both row and column equilibration, i.e., A has been replaced by diag(S) * A * diag(S). EQUED is an input argument if FACT = 'F'; otherwise, it is an output argument. 
[in,out]  S  S is REAL array, dimension (N) The scale factors for A. If EQUED = 'Y', A is multiplied on the left and right by diag(S). S is an input argument if FACT = 'F'; otherwise, S is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and EQUED = 'Y', each element of S must be positive. If S is output, each element of S is a power of the radix. If S is input, each element of S should be a power of the radix to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates. Scaling by powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless the result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be reliable. 
[in,out]  B  B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS) On entry, the NbyNRHS right hand side matrix B. On exit, if EQUED = 'N', B is not modified; if EQUED = 'Y', B is overwritten by diag(S)*B; 
[in]  LDB  LDB is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N). 
[out]  X  X is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDX,NRHS) If INFO = 0, the NbyNRHS solution matrix X to the original system of equations. Note that A and B are modified on exit if EQUED .ne. 'N', and the solution to the equilibrated system is inv(diag(S))*X. 
[in]  LDX  LDX is INTEGER The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N). 
[out]  RCOND  RCOND is REAL Reciprocal scaled condition number. This is an estimate of the reciprocal Skeel condition number of the matrix A after equilibration (if done). If this is less than the machine precision (in particular, if it is zero), the matrix is singular to working precision. Note that the error may still be small even if this number is very small and the matrix appears ill conditioned. 
[out]  RPVGRW  RPVGRW is REAL Reciprocal pivot growth. On exit, this contains the reciprocal pivot growth factor norm(A)/norm(U). The "max absolute element" norm is used. If this is much less than 1, then the stability of the LU factorization of the (equilibrated) matrix A could be poor. This also means that the solution X, estimated condition numbers, and error bounds could be unreliable. If factorization fails with 0<INFO<=N, then this contains the reciprocal pivot growth factor for the leading INFO columns of A. 
[out]  BERR  BERR is REAL array, dimension (NRHS) Componentwise relative backward error. This is the componentwise relative backward error of each solution vector X(j) (i.e., the smallest relative change in any element of A or B that makes X(j) an exact solution). 
[in]  N_ERR_BNDS  N_ERR_BNDS is INTEGER Number of error bounds to return for each right hand side and each type (normwise or componentwise). See ERR_BNDS_NORM and ERR_BNDS_COMP below. 
[out]  ERR_BNDS_NORM  ERR_BNDS_NORM is REAL array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS) For each righthand side, this array contains information about various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the normwise relative error, which is defined as follows: Normwise relative error in the ith solution vector: max_j (abs(XTRUE(j,i)  X(j,i)))  max_j abs(X(j,i)) The array is indexed by the type of error information as described below. There currently are up to three pieces of information returned. The first index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(i,:) corresponds to the ith righthand side. The second index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,err) contains the following three fields: err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error, almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only be trusted if the previous boolean is true. err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated normwise reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some appropriately scaled matrix Z. Let Z = S*A, where S scales each row by a power of the radix so all absolute row sums of Z are approximately 1. See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra cautions. 
[out]  ERR_BNDS_COMP  ERR_BNDS_COMP is REAL array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS) For each righthand side, this array contains information about various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the componentwise relative error, which is defined as follows: Componentwise relative error in the ith solution vector: abs(XTRUE(j,i)  X(j,i)) max_j  abs(X(j,i)) The array is indexed by the righthand side i (on which the componentwise relative error depends), and the type of error information as described below. There currently are up to three pieces of information returned for each righthand side. If componentwise accuracy is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0), then ERR_BNDS_COMP is not accessed. If N_ERR_BNDS < 3, then at most the first (:,N_ERR_BNDS) entries are returned. The first index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(i,:) corresponds to the ith righthand side. The second index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,err) contains the following three fields: err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error, almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only be trusted if the previous boolean is true. err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated componentwise reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some appropriately scaled matrix Z. Let Z = S*(A*diag(x)), where x is the solution for the current righthand side and S scales each row of A*diag(x) by a power of the radix so all absolute row sums of Z are approximately 1. See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra cautions. 
[in]  NPARAMS  NPARAMS is INTEGER Specifies the number of parameters set in PARAMS. If <= 0, the PARAMS array is never referenced and default values are used. 
[in,out]  PARAMS  PARAMS is REAL array, dimension NPARAMS Specifies algorithm parameters. If an entry is < 0.0, then that entry will be filled with default value used for that parameter. Only positions up to NPARAMS are accessed; defaults are used for highernumbered parameters. PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I = 1) : Whether to perform iterative refinement or not. Default: 1.0 = 0.0: No refinement is performed, and no error bounds are computed. = 1.0: Use the doubleprecision refinement algorithm, possibly with doubledsingle computations if the compilation environment does not support DOUBLE PRECISION. (other values are reserved for future use) PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITHRESH_I = 2) : Maximum number of residual computations allowed for refinement. Default: 10 Aggressive: Set to 100 to permit convergence using approximate factorizations or factorizations other than LU. If the factorization uses a technique other than Gaussian elimination, the guarantees in err_bnds_norm and err_bnds_comp may no longer be trustworthy. PARAMS(LA_LINRX_CWISE_I = 3) : Flag determining if the code will attempt to find a solution with small componentwise relative error in the doubleprecision algorithm. Positive is true, 0.0 is false. Default: 1.0 (attempt componentwise convergence) 
[out]  WORK  WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (2*N) 
[out]  RWORK  RWORK is REAL array, dimension (2*N) 
[out]  INFO  INFO is INTEGER = 0: Successful exit. The solution to every righthand side is guaranteed. < 0: If INFO = i, the ith argument had an illegal value > 0 and <= N: U(INFO,INFO) is exactly zero. The factorization has been completed, but the factor U is exactly singular, so the solution and error bounds could not be computed. RCOND = 0 is returned. = N+J: The solution corresponding to the Jth righthand side is not guaranteed. The solutions corresponding to other right hand sides K with K > J may not be guaranteed as well, but only the first such righthand side is reported. If a small componentwise error is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0) then the Jth righthand side is the first with a normwise error bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest J such that ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0). By default (PARAMS(3) = 1.0) the Jth righthand side is the first with either a normwise or componentwise error bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest J such that either ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0 or ERR_BNDS_COMP(J,1) = 0.0). See the definition of ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,1) and ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,1). To get information about all of the righthand sides check ERR_BNDS_NORM or ERR_BNDS_COMP. 
Definition at line 505 of file csysvxx.f.